Research and Policy Series



Achieving Sustainable Energy for All in the Asia-Pacific (2013)
Achieving Sustainable Energy for All in the Asia-Pacific is a report developed by the UNDP Asia-Pacific Regional Centre, investigating the sustainable energy opportunities and challenges in the region in relation to poverty reduction and development. It is produced in line with the United Nations Secretary General’s Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (SE4ALL), which seeks to reach three goals by 2030: Universal access to modern energy; double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency; and double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix.
 
The report covers a sample of 18 countries in Asia and the Pacific, their current energy situation regarding electrification rates and dependency on traditional fuel such as wood and charcoal. It explores the potential for renewable energy in the region, including hydropower, wind, solar and biomass, as well as experiences and opportunities to improve energy efficiency.  Finally, the report describes four main barriers to reach the goals of Sustainable Energy for All, and suggests solutions for how these barriers can be overcome, using specific examples from the region.
 
While the Report emphasizes that all three SE4ALL goals – energy access, energy efficiency and renewable energy – are high priorities for Asia-Pacific, achieving universal access represents the most immediate goal, as well as perhaps the largest opportunity for achieving the other goals.  The analysis reveals numerous cases throughout Asia-Pacific where access to electricity and modern forms of energy have facilitated the provision of adequate food, shelter, clothing, water, sanitation, medical care, education, and access to information.  However. 1.3 billion people worldwide still live completely without access to electricity, and 2.7 billion worldwide are dependent on solid fuels such as wood or charcoal for household energy. What might be more surprising is the fact that more than half of the people living with no electricity at all live in Asia-Pacific, and a staggering 72% of the world’s population dependent on traditional fuels for cooking reside in this region.
 
Hard copies of this report are available upon request. Please write to sirintharat.wannawong@undp.org.

Download Publication



Stigma, Discrimination and Key Affected Populations: Strengthening the Role of Media Advocacy in Sri Lanka through a Critical Analysis of News Media Coverage (2013)
Stigma, Discrimination and Key Affected Populations: Strengthening the Role of Media Advocacy in Sri Lanka through a Critical Analysis of News Media Coverage aims to demonstrate the role of media in reflecting and perpetuating stigma and discrimination against key affected populations and people living with HIV by identifying key issues and challenges and providing recommendations for strengthening the role of media advocacy in creating an enabling environment for HIV prevention, treatment and care in Sri Lanka. This study was supported under the South Asia Multi-Country Global Fund Programme (MSA-910-G01-H).
Download Publication



Legal protections against HIV-related human rights violations: Experiences and lessons learned from national HIV laws in Asia and the Pacific (2013)

Increasingly, countries in the Asia-Pacific region have put in place HIV laws to provide legal protections for people living with HIV. In a follow-up to the report of the Global Commission on HIV and the Law, Legal Protections against HIV-related Human Rights Violations: Experiences and Lessons Learned from National HIV Laws in Asia and the Pacific systematically examines for the first time how these laws have been used and enforced to address rights violations. The report highlights gaps in laws and law enforcement practices. It identifies gaps that exist between ‘laws on the books’ and ‘laws on the streets’. In some countries good laws are in place, but people living with HIV still confront significant obstacles in gaining access to justice. Based upon the findings, the report provides a number of recommendations, including greater investments to enhance legal protections for people living with HIV and key populations, such as men who have sex with men, sex workers, transgender people and people who use drugs, through strengthened engagement of parliamentarians, judiciary, police, lawyers, national human rights bodies and other key institutions. In support of these actions, donors, including the Global Fund, should promote and allocate greater resources to support government and civil society programming on HIV-related human rights programming. Additionally, national HIV strategies and plans should include specific targeted actions for the legal sector, including law reform, provision of legal aid services and education of people living with HIV, lawyers and the judiciary on HIV-related rights issues.


Download Publication



Promoting Local Election Management as Part of an Electoral Cycle Approach (2013)
This paper examines different modalities used by various countries in the Asia-Pacific region to administer local elections and demonstrates the impact of management practices on electoral cycle approaches, the delivery of elections, and the provision of assistance. The paper also makes broad policy recommendations for contexts where assistance providers may choose to target programs and where election management bodies may decide to focus local level capacity strengthening initiatives.
 
The paper targets countries in the Asia-Pacific region that are planning for local elections. It has relevance for a number of stakeholders including electoral management bodies, political parties, parliament, government ministries, civil society and international organizations.

Download Publication



APHDR Technical Background Paper 2012/07 - Climate Change and Pacific Island Countries (2013)
This paper presents the effects of increased temperatures and sea-level rise, together with other climate-linked changes to the Pacific Islands. It examines past responses to climate changes and barriers in driving adaptation to climate change at the community level. It also presents a set of fundamental challenges to livelihoods in the Pacific Islands region posed by future climate change and recommendations to reduce the impacts of such changes.

Download Publication



APHDR Technical Background Paper 2012/12 - Climate Change Fuelling Resource-Based Conflicts in the Asia-Pacific (2013)
This paper aims to present a background to resource-based conflicts and how they may be influenced by climate change in the Asia Pacific region. In so doing, this paper first examines the relationship between security, natural resources, and climate change. Second, this paper looks specifically at this issue in the Asia-Pacific region, presenting case studies from South and West Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific. The paper also presents an appraisal of existing address of this issue and explores options for future action that may underpin peace and security in a climate change context at local and international levels.

Download Publication



Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Affordable ARVs in China (2013)
This paper documents the recent developments, opportunities and challenges in intellectual property rights and access to affordable medicines in China. In particular, the paper finds that there have been impressive achievements in the national response to the HIV epidemic in China. Examples include the rapid expansion of government-supported antiretroviral (ARV) schemes and the development of a legal framework on intellectual property to address access to affordable pharmaceutical products in China. Adoption of the National Intellectual Property Strategy by the State Council in June 2008, and the revisions to the Patent Law and the Implementing Regulations with strong focus on public health protection are among the most prominent legal and policy achievements over the recent years, founding an enabling environment for action. However, there is still a great need for coordination among relevant ministries and agencies to explore options to increase access to affordable pharmaceutical products. The recognition that domestic civil society is a part of the solution is an important starting point to forge broader partnerships necessary to ensure access to affordable medicines and successful treatment uptake. Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Affordable ARVs in China originates from a study commissioned by UNDP to the Third World Network, who conducted the research in consultation with the members of the UN Technical Working Group on Care and Treatment, Access to Medicines Sub-Group in 2007/2008. It was subsequently updated in 2012 with special thanks to UNAIDS, MSF, Hu Yuanqiong and Tenu Avafia, Policy Specialist from UNDP Bureau for Development Policy. The final report was edited by Professor Carlos Correa from the University of Buenos Aires.
Download Publication



APHDR Technical Background Paper 2012/18 - Nuclear Energy in Combating Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific (2013)
This background paper explores the possible role of nuclear energy in climate change mitigation and in resolving supply security and environmental issues. It concludes with a summary of the main points and recommendations for the way forward.

Download Publication



Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific (2012)
The report is intended to provide an evidence-base for: policy makers working in government, regional and multilateral organizations; parliamentarians; members of the judiciary; civil society organizations; donor agencies; and sex workers and their organizations engaged in advocacy to improve the legal and policy enabling environment for HIV responses. The study focuses on 48 countries of the Asia-Pacific region, with an emphasis on low and middle-income countries.

Download Publication



Gender Equality in Elected Office in Asia Pacific: Six Actions to Expand Women’s Empowerment (2012)
This publication provides an overview of women’s political representation in Asia-Pacific member states, and reviews the impact of series of six fast-track institutional reforms which can contribute towards the attainment of gender equality in elected office. These six “windows or opportunity” include an examination of legally binding quotas, constitutional rights, political party recruitment, capacity building initiatives, parliamentary reform and political party recruitment.
 
The six-step action plan is structured so national policy makers and practitioners working to increase women’s political involvement can select one window of opportunity to expanding women’s political participation most relevant to their specific context.

Download Publication